Document Type : Review Paper
Chemical Engineering Department, Egyptian Academy for Engineering and Advanced Technology (EA&EAT) affiliated to Ministry of Military Production, Km# 3 Cairo- Belbeis Desert Road, Cairo, Egypt
Chemical Engineering and Pilot Plant Department, Engineering and Renewable Energy Research Institute, National Research Centre (NRC), 33 El-Bohouth St. (Former El-Tahrir St.), Dokki, Giza, Egypt
Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, El-Minia University, El-Minia, Egypt
Waste generation issue is considered a major problem, especially with the high rate of population growth. This matter doesn’t include only municipal waste, it also extends to the industrial effluents that are produced in huge amounts. These pollutants affect natural resources and change the properties of soil, water, and air. The undesirable environmental impact is maximized when the effluent is non-biodegradable, such as construction and demolition waste, fly ash and, blast furnace slag in the case of solid waste, and wastewater contaminated with heavy metals or dyes in the case of liquid waste. Accordingly, waste management techniques are applied to mitigate or reduce the hazardous impact on the environment. In this manner, solid waste is recycled to produce alkali-activated membranes that are used to eliminate the undesirable constituents in wastewater. Alkali-activated membranes are inorganic membranes manufactured using kaolin or metakaolin as the main raw material in addition to fly ash or blast furnace slag. In order to fabricate these membranes, a variety of raw materials, chemical activators, pore-forming agents, curing time, and curing temperature may be applied, then the product is tested to make sure that it will withstand the operating conditions. In this paper, different fabrication parameters of alkali-activated and geopolymer membranes and their effect on product properties are illustrated.