Membrane Industry Development Institute, Tehran, Iran
Membrane distillation (MD) is a thermal separation process that has attracted growing interest in recent years due to its advantages for water and wastewater treatment, and other applications. This “Engineering Advance” provides a concise and brief discussion of some of the most recent developments and future directions for MD for a wide range of applications. According to available data and information on MD in the open literature, the development of new membrane materials and module designs, improving energy efficiency, scaling up, coupling with other technologies, and exploring new applications are some of the key directions for the future of MD technology. This paper highlights these issues with an emphasis on the latest developments.