Experimental Design for Nano-Ceramic Membranes Fabrication and Optimization


1 Chemical Engineering and Pilot Plant Department, Engineering and Renewable Energy Research Institute, National Research Centre (NRC), Giza, Egypt, Affiliation ID: 60014618

2 Industrial Technological Development Sector – Ministry of Investment, Trade, and Industry, Cairo, Egypt


In this work, nano-ceramic membranes were fabricated using waste powder produced from ceramic industries. An experimental model for fabricating ceramic membranes for desalination was developed using the factorial design method. The (33) factorial designs (FD) were employed to study the effect of verification parameters, such as time, binder percentage, and firing temperature on the prepared membrane properties, including bulk density, apparent specific gravity, apparent porosity, and water absorption. The three-dimensional (3D) response surface plot FD model of water absorption using 5% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) indicated that increasing firing temperature resulted in a reduction in membrane water absorption and porosity. The maximum achievable porosity was 47–48%, observed at a firing temperature of 1200°C. The minimum porosity was 33%, observed at a firing temperature of 1300°C. A mathematical model was developed for optimizing the membrane for desalination using different salt concentrations ranging from 5 to 45 g/L. The model predictions indicate that the water permeate flux is decreased as the feed salt concentration increases as observed from the experimental results. The predicted salt rejection from the model agreed with the experimental results, it was around 99.8–99.6% reduction of the feed salt concentration.

Graphical Abstract

Experimental Design for Nano-Ceramic Membranes Fabrication and Optimization


Main Subjects

Volume 8, Issue 1
Special Issue: Membranes for Development and Sustainable Future
January 2022
  • Receive Date: 22 September 2021
  • Revise Date: 09 February 2022
  • Accept Date: 11 February 2022