Document Type : Review Paper
Department of Chemical Engineering, Lakehead University, Canada
Department of Chemical Engineering, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, ON, Canada P7B 5E1
Faculty of Natural Resources Management, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, On, Canada P7B 5E1
Department of chemical engineering, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, ON, Canada P7B 5E1
Membrane separation technologies have recently received much attention, from lab-scale studies to full-scale operations, in the forest industry. However, membrane fouling comprises a signifcant obstacle to their broad application. Thus, to ensure cost-eﬀective operation of membrane separation processes, the improved elucidation of membrane fouling and establishment of eﬀective fouling control strategies are critical. Membrane fouling decreases process performance efciency, thereby increasing operational and maintenance costs. Although much research has been conducted in this feld, a review has not yet been undertaken to address membrane fouling in pulp and paper mill applications. Further, membrane fouling is still not fully understood. In this review, a survey of the present state of fouling management strategies in the pulp and paper industry (PPI) is presented alongside the latest advances and innovative methods in fouling management. This article also discusses the key parameters that aﬀect membrane fouling, fouling characterization techniques, as well as fouling mechanisms and strategies that are employed for fouling control. In addition, future research opportunities related to membrane fouling control strategies in both low-pressure membranes and MBRs are proposed.