Document Type : SI: Honoring AF
Department of Biomaterials, Iran Polymer & Petrochemical Institute, Tehran, Iran
the preparation of high-performance hemodialysis membrane, the effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), and also the simultaneous effect of both additives in the polyethersulfone (PES) membrane were investigated. Viscosity measurements demonstrated that PVP has better compatibility with PES, owing to the amorphous nature, closer glassy transition temperature (Tg), and solubility parameters rather than PEG (semi-crystalline and low Tg). This could lead to enhancement in the solution viscosity. SEM results revealed that membranes morphology was dependent upon casting solution viscosity and with increasing viscosity; the formation of macro-voids suppressed and achieving to a membrane with a smaller mean pore size would be possible. The results of the AFM study demonstrated that, with the addition of PVP, membranes with smooth surface were achieved. In contrast, the PEG addition led to a rougher membrane surface. The results verified that PEG had a tangible effect on the permeability of membrane rather than PVP or blend of PVP and PEG, which is owing to its impressive pore-forming role. The maximum pure water permeability (PWP) was achieved for MV4 (24.9 L/m2.h.bar), MG2 (44.8 L/m2.h.bar), MVG2 (25.2 L/m2.h.bar), and MVG3 (25.1 L/m2.h.bar). Rejection test showed that MV3, MV4, MG3, MG4, MVG2, and MVG3 had the best performance in terms of urea removal and maintaining other components, especially bovine serum albumin (BSA). In-vitro cytotoxicity demonstrated the biocompatibility of MV2, MG3, and MVG3 as representative of all membranes. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) test confirmed that PVP has a tangible effect on the reduction of platelet adhesion on the membrane surface.