Efficient Immobilized TiO2 in Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) Membrane for Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue

Document Type: Research Paper


1 Centre for Diploma Studies (CeDS), Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 84600 Muar, Johor, Malaysia

2 Department of Physical Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology



Immobilized titanium dioxide (TiO2) in membrane structure has been attractive recently due to the elimination of the separation step after the photocatalytic degradation process. The efficiency of TiO2 surface area exposed to UV light as the main important parameter need to be considered. The immobilization of TiO2 nanoparticles in polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane structure with a different particle size (6 and 30nm) was prepared via different techniques, which is tape casting and spin coating methods in order to study the distribution of TiO2 nanoparticles in the membrane structure. Besides, the effects of spinning speed in spin coating methods on the membrane structure and photocatalytic performance were investigated. The morphological and physical characteristics were explored by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersion of X-ray (EDX), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. The prepared membranes were tested in a photocatalytic system by using methylene blue (MB) as a model pollutant. The result indicated that the immobilization of TiO2 nanoparticles in membrane structure could enhance the MB degradation rate. The aggregation of 6 and 30nm TiO2 particle size prepared by tape casting method shows similar performance in MB degradation rate however contradict result via spin coating method. The good distribution and uniformity of 6nm TiO2 particle sizes exhibit higher MB degradation rate. The thickness of the membrane can be tailored by using a spin coating method and UV penetration towards the photocatalytic membrane up to 55.64µm of thickness could enhance the MB photocatalytic degradation rate.


Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript
Available Online from 15 September 2019
  • Receive Date: 02 May 2019
  • Revise Date: 27 August 2019
  • Accept Date: 15 September 2019