LEPMI, Univ. of Grenoble Alpes, France
King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Biological and Environmental Science and Engineering Division (BESE), Red Sea Research Center, 23955-6900, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia.
Department of Chemistry, College of Natural and Computational Science, Jigjiga University, P.O. Box 1020, Jigjiga, Ethiopia
Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, Building 310, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
King Abdullah University of Science and Technology
In this paper, we appraised the link between policy and research advancement in the area of membrane technology to maximize its application in developing countries. First, the water pollution and water scarcity challenges in Ethiopia are discussed together with the national policy. The minimum allowable concentration for pollutants set by the Ethiopian water resource authorities is significantly higher than the one set, for example, by WHO due to lack of suitable wastewater treatment technologies. To support population growth, Ethiopia urgently needs stringent legislation backed up by alternative treatment technologies in order to implement multi-sectoral water protection and provision programs. The current-status of membrane technologies and the availability of raw materials for membrane fabrication are presented. Key types of membrane technologies that are currently practiced and the obtained merits compared to traditional treatment strategies are thoroughly reviewed. Membrane technology can be used as a two-way tool: (i) to fill gaps in policy implementation with more stringent minimum allowable pollutants concentration and (ii) to reduce water pollution and scarcity. Implementing hybrid membrane process for resource recovery and wastewater reclamation can lead us towards a green resilient circular economy. We strongly believe that this work provides useful information for membrane researchers as well as water managers thereby motivating further research and planning on membrane processes in water and wastewater treatment in Ethiopia and other developing economy countries.