Oxygenation and Membrane Oxygenators: Emergence, Evolution and Progress in Material Development and Process Enhancement for Biomedical Applications

Document Type : Review Paper

Authors

1 Tarbiat Modares University

2 Nanotechnology and Water sustainability Research Unit, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, University of South Africa, Florida Campus, Johannesburg, South Africa

3 Lehrstuhl für Technische Chemie II and Centre for Water and Environmental Research (ZWU), Universität Duisburg-Essen, 45117 Essen, Germany

4 Department of Chemical Engineering, Vrije Universiteit Brussel

5 Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University

10.22079/jmsr.2021.521505.1431

Abstract

Ever-increasing demands for high performance blood oxygenators have led to continuous advancements in this field.  Despite the progresses made since their emergence, there still exist challenges that intimidate the reliability of  membrane oxygenators. A promising approach for addressing these challenges and enhancing the overall process  performance relates to the selection, development, and modification of materials with desirable characteristics. The main  impetus for the present review is to bring forward important and yet less explored subjects by shedding light on the  technological, design, and engineering aspects of oxygenators and the oxygenation process. Special attention is paid to  membrane oxygenators and their essential characteristics such as gas transport, plasma leakage, and biocompatibility.  Also, various practical configurations of membrane oxygenators are illustrated with their merits and limitations. From the  materials perspective, a comprehensive range of polymeric materials with track records for applications as membrane  oxygenators are surveyed and analyzed considering their physicochemical and biocompatibility properties in order to  gain insights into the features of an optimal material. In addition to elaborations on the methods for fabrication of  membrane oxygenators, various effective techniques that could be used for altering the microstructure and surface  properties of the membranes are presented. Also, an in-depth overview is provided about the transport phenomena in  membrane oxygenators aiming to provide a better understanding of the molecular and process aspects of the process. An overview of the state of the art is summarized along with points about the trends of future developments are provided at the end. 

Graphical Abstract

Oxygenation and Membrane Oxygenators: Emergence, Evolution and Progress in Material Development and Process Enhancement for Biomedical Applications

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