Document Type: Review Paper
Department of Chemical Engineering, ITB, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132, Indonesia
The polysulfone-based membrane has been used in hemodialysis (HD) and it is continuously developed to maintain its sustainability on the subject of biocompatibility. During the polysulfone-based membrane development, several parameters should be considered to improve the membrane performances, such as excellent biocompatibility, appropriate ultrafiltration rate, and effective clearance of the target solute. In terms of biocompatibility, characteristics of interaction between proteins in the blood and membrane surface is a critical point of view to avoid platelet adhesion and activation that initiate the inflammatory responses. Different methods of modifications have been proposed. Most of the modification methods are focused on the increase of membrane hydrophilicity. A number of modified polysulfone-based membranes have been developed through several methods including blending materials, plasma treatment, and other surface modifications. Selectivity of the polysulfone membrane also plays an important role in avoiding endotoxin leakage and reducing albumin loss during HD treatment. On the other hand, sterilization of the HD membrane also becomes very important with regard to its effects, such as changes in physicochemical properties, biocompatibility, and performances of the membranes. In this paper, the polysulfone-based membrane for HD is reviewed comprehensively. Special attention is given to the preparation, characterization and sterilization of HD membranes.